Simplify Your JavaScript Code With Prototype Design Pattern In JavaScript


Vishnu Prasath

October 9, 2023

Last updated: November 15, 2023

prototype design pattern in JavaScript

An Introduction To Prototype Design Pattern In JavaScript

The Prototype Pattern is a popular design pattern in JavaScript that allows objects to be created from existing objects, serving as prototypes. It provides an efficient way to create new objects by cloning existing ones, reducing the need for repetitive object creation and initialization. 

Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced JavaScript developer, understanding the Prototype design Pattern in JavaScript can greatly enhance your ability to create reusable and efficient code.

Thus, in this introductory blog, we will delve into the intricacies of the Prototype Design Pattern in JavaScript, exploring its fundamentals, use cases, and best practices. By the end of this journey, you’ll have a solid understanding of how to harness the power of prototypes to enhance your JavaScript codebase.

What Is Prototype Design Pattern In JavaScript?

The Prototype design pattern in JavaScript is a design pattern that is commonly used in JavaScript to create objects that are similar to other objects, without having to create them from scratch. This pattern is significantly useful when creating multiple objects with the same properties and methods, as it allows you to create a template for these objects and reuse them. 

Nonetheless, in JavaScript, every object has a prototype, which is an object. The Prototype design pattern takes advantage of this by creating a prototype object that can be used to create new objects with the same properties and methods.

However, before creating an object using the JavaScript prototype design pattern, let us see how to create an object using object literal

Creating An Object Using Object Literal

Given below is an example that shows an object that is created using object literal:

Creating an object using object Literal

Let us also see how the object is created in the developer console:

object created in the developer console

The point to be noted here is that in JavaScript everything is an object. Thus each object implicitly contains a property called prototype which initially points to the JavaScript global object. Hence in the prototype pattern, you should make the prototype property point to your own object. 

Creating A Prototype Object:

To create a prototype object, you can use either object literals or constructor functions.

Here’s an example created using the object literals:

creating an object using the object literals

In the above example, I have created a prototype object called calibraintEmployees that has a greet method. I have then created a new object called employee1 using the Object.create() method, which sets the prototype of employee1 to calibraintEmployees. I have then set the name and age properties of employee1 and have called its greet method.

Let us also see how the object is created in the developer console:

prototype pattern in JavaScript

employee1 object has the property of name, age and prototype. Initially, this prototype property was pointing to the JavaScript global object. Thus we made that property point to our object calibraintEmployees by Object.create(calibraintEmployees).

Creating A Prototype Object with Constructor Functions:

You can also create a prototype object using the constructor functions. 

Here’s an example:

creating a prototype object with constructor function

In this example, I have created a constructor function called calibraintEmployees that sets the name and age properties of a new object. I have then added a greet method to the calibraintEmployees.prototype object, which is the prototype of all objects created with the calibraintEmployees constructor. I then created a new object called employee1 using the new keyword and called its greet method.

Let’s now see how the object is created in the developer console:

prototype creational design pattern

employee1 object had the property of name, age and prototype. Initially, the prototype property was pointing to the JavaScript global object. Thus we made that property point to our function greet () by calibraintEmployees.prototype.greet. Since everything in JavaScript is an object, greet () is also an object. Hence it contained a prototype property which was pointing to the JavaScript global object. 

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Advantages Of The Prototype Design Pattern In JavaScript

The Prototype Design Pattern in JavaScript offers several advantages that make it a valuable tool for developers. Here are some of the key benefits:

advantages of the prototype design pattern in JavaScript

1. Efficient Memory Usage: One of the most significant advantages of the Prototype Pattern is its efficient use of memory. In JavaScript, each object created from a constructor function shares the same prototype object. This means that properties and methods are not duplicated for each instance, resulting in reduced memory consumption.

2. Code Reusability: The Prototype Pattern promotes code reusability by allowing you to define properties and methods once in the prototype and have multiple instances inherit them. This makes it easy to create and manage objects with shared functionality.

3. Dynamic Updates: You can dynamically update the properties and methods of prototypes at runtime. This flexibility enables you to make changes to the behavior of all instances that share the same prototype, which is particularly useful for applying fixes or improvements across your codebase.

4. Encapsulation: The Prototype Pattern encourages encapsulation by keeping the constructor function and prototype separate. This separation helps maintain a clear distinction between instance-specific data and shared functionality.

5. Prototypal Inheritance: JavaScript’s prototypal inheritance mechanism aligns seamlessly with the Prototype Pattern. It allows objects to inherit properties and methods from their prototypes, creating a hierarchical structure that simplifies the organization of code.

6. Simplified Object Creation: With the Prototype creational Design Pattern, you can create new objects by cloning an existing object or prototype. This simplifies the object creation process, especially when you need multiple objects with similar properties and methods.

7. Reduced Initialization Time: Objects created using the Prototype Pattern do not need to undergo extensive initialization processes for properties and methods since they inherit them from their prototypes. This can lead to faster object creation and improved application performance.

8. Clear Object Relationships: The Prototype Pattern makes it easy to establish clear relationships between objects and their prototypes. This transparency enhances code readability and makes it easier to trace the source of properties and methods.

9. Compatibility with Built-in Objects: JavaScript’s built-in objects, such as arrays and functions, also use prototypes. Familiarity with the Prototype Pattern can help you better understand and extend these built-in objects.

10. Facilitates Design Patterns: The Prototype Pattern serves as a foundation for other design patterns in JavaScript, such as the Singleton Pattern and the Factory Pattern. Understanding the Prototype Pattern can help you grasp these patterns more easily.

Why Prototype Pattern Matters

The Prototype Design Pattern is particularly valuable when you need to create multiple instances of an object with shared characteristics. By centralizing these shared properties and methods in a prototype, you not only save memory but also simplify maintenance and reduce the risk of bugs.

In addition, the Prototype Design Pattern aligns seamlessly with JavaScript’s dynamic nature, making it an indispensable tool in your development toolkit. 


Mastering JavaScript design patterns is a crucial step for any developer who wants to create maintainable, scalable, and efficient code that can stand the test of time. 

As discussed above, the Prototype pattern is a powerful tool for creating objects in JavaScript. Whether you’re creating objects with object literals or constructor functions, the Prototype pattern can help you create objects more efficiently by reusing the code. 

In short, the efficiency of the Prototype Pattern in JavaScript in terms of memory usage, code reusability, and dynamic updates makes it a valuable asset in the JavaScript developer’s toolkit. By embracing this pattern, you can write cleaner, more efficient code and design scalable applications with ease. 

Frequently Asked Questions On Prototype Pattern In JavaScript

1. What Is The Prototype Pattern In JavaScript?

The Prototype Pattern is a design pattern in JavaScript where objects can share and inherit properties and methods from a prototype object.

2. How Do You Create Objects Using The Prototype Pattern?

You can create objects by defining a prototype object with properties and methods, and then you use it as a blueprint to create new objects with the “Object.create()” method.

3. What’s The Advantage Of Using The Prototype Pattern?

The advantage of using the Prototype Pattern is that it promotes efficient memory usage by allowing multiple instances to share the same prototype, reducing duplication of methods and properties among objects.

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